Monday, May 25, 2020
A unit or credit in college is a way for your school to quantify the amount of academic work required to earn a degree. It is important that you understand how theÃ college or university youre attending assigns units or credits before registering for classes. What Is a College Unit? A college unit of credit is a number value assigned to each class offered at a college or university. Units are used to measure the value of a class based on its level, intensity, importance, and the number of hours you spend in it each week. Typically, a 1-unit course corresponds to classes that meet for one hour of lecture, discussion, or lab time per week. As follows, a course that meets twice a week for one hour would correspond to a 2-unit course and a class meeting twice for 1.5 hours would be a 3-unit class. In general, the more time and work a class requires from you or the more advanced study it provides, the more units you will receive.Ã Most standard college classes are awarded 3 or 4 units.Some very difficult, labor-intensive classes might be awarded a high number of units. For example, a challenging, upper-division class with a lab requirement might be assigned 5 units.Easier classes that involve less work or those considered more of an elective might be assigned just 1 or 2 units. These may include an exercise class, a course that doesnt meet often, or one that doesnt require a high reading load. The term unit is often used interchangeably with the term credit. A 4-unit course, for example, might very well be the same thing at your school as a 4-credit course. Regardless of how the terms are used, its smart to see how your particular school assigns units (or credits) to the classes offered. How Do Units Affect Your Course Load? In order to be considered a full-time student, you have to be enrolled in a certain number of units during each period of the school year. This will vary by school, but on average it is between 12 and 15 units per semester or quarter. Sidenote about quarters: sometimes, the amount of classes in two quarters doesnt fully match the number of classes in a semester, in which case the quarter units become worth about 2/3 of the semester units. Minimum and Maximum Your schools calendar and the degree program youre enrolled in may play a factor in the minimum number of units required. Similarly, your parents insurance can affect your requirements as well. At most colleges, a bachelors degree requires 120-180 completed units and a typical associates degree requires 60-90 completed units, which translates to the already mentioned 12-15 units per semester. This number may also vary depending on your initial level placements. In some cases, first-year students have to take remedial classes that dont count to these totals, as they are there to help students reach the college entry levels. Additionally, your institution might strongly advise against carrying more than a certain number of units. These maximums are put into place simply because the workload might be considered unmanageable. Many colleges are concerned with student health and want to make sure you do not take on too much work that may cause unnecessary stress. How Many Units to Take? Before you register for classes, make sure that you are familiar with and understand the schools unit system. If needed, review it with an academic advisor and be sure to use your unit allowance wisely. For example, taking too many 1-unit electives your freshman year may leave you in a pinch for necessary classes later in your college career. By having an idea of the classes you will need each year and sticking to a general plan, youll make the most out of the classes you take and be one step closer to earning your degree. Typically, one unit, or one hour of class, will require two hours of study time. Consequently, a 3 unit course would require three hours of lectures, discussions, or labs and six hours of independent studying. A 3 unit course will, therefore, necessitate about nine hours of your time. To be successful in college, choose the amount of units based on your other engagements, such as work and other responsibilities. Many students try to take on as many units as they can, only to find themselves in distress or unable to perform sufficiently in their classes. It is understandable that sometimes students must finish their degree within a certain amount of time. This may be due to their colleges requirements or personal finances. However, when necessary and possible, extending the length of your study could be beneficial to your mental health as well as to your GPA and therefore to your learning and overall college experience.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
To look into the issue of gender discrimination in both Australia and China. 1.2 Parameters To investigate the problem of gender inequality involving workplace discrimination and domestic violence in Australia and China. This report will include words for about 2000 and will be divided into 4 sections. 1.3 Definitions Gender inequality can be defined as allowing people having different opportunities due to perceived differences based solely on issues of gender. In the meantime, the prejudicial treatment of an individual or group due to gender can be called as gender discrimination. (Parziale n.d.) 1.4 Thesis The people in both China and Australia and their government must pay attention to this serious social problem, and working together to improve it. 2. BACKGROUND TO THE ISSUE: Gender inequality and discrimination are generally discussed towards women (Parziale n.d.), and this report will mainly discuss it this way. But actually, in anyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s daily life, they will have a chance to experience gender inequality or discrimination. 2.1 Global Context As the world comes into the twenty-second century, women with a full-time job still earn 77% of their male counterpartsÃ¢â¬â¢ earning, even if they have the exactly same education background. Also, 4/5 victims of human trafficking chose women as the target. On the worldwide average, 30% of women who have been in a relationship report that they experienced some form of sexual violence before, which was done byShow MoreRelatedGender Discrimination: A Global Issue1277 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescommon examples of gender discrimination. Gender discrimination, also known as sexism, is the unjust treatment of either males or females. The most common form of gender discrimination, as shown in the example above, is discrimination against women. The continuation of discrimination against women will be harmful to society considering it will be easy to fall back into old traditions. Gender is such a general trait that discrimination towards women could lead to discrimination of other traits, theRe ad MoreGender Discrimination : An Ethical Problem Essay1043 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAbstract: Gender Discrimination is a type of discrimination where basing on a particular personÃ¢â¬â¢s gender (or) sex a person is discriminated, majorly this type of discrimination is faced by women and girls. In this globalized world, where interaction between two individuals became easy as seams of finger touch and where we always debate, speak about the equality rights for men and women, we still see many instances of many individuals being discriminated based on the gender difference. This paperRead MoreGender Discrimination And The Role Of Education996 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesof Research: Gender Discrimination and the Role of Education to overcome it The objective of this study is to comprehend the circumstances and end results of gender discrimination in the working environment and to recommend solutions for evacuating this practice through instruction is the target of this examination proposition. Gender discrimination is tended to by all countries of the world. The created countries have overcome it by receiving a few means. In immature nations like Pakistan, despiteRead MoreGender Discrimination : A Root Of Gender Roles And Preconceived Labels Essay1093 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGender Discrimination: A Root of Gender Roles And Preconceived labels The sociological definition of the word gender: The extent to which one identifies as being either masculine or feminine. In the American society more people are starting to be aware of issues perceived with gender. Combined with all the current events that we are facing today, this topic is being discussed more than ever. Currently there is a multitude of perceptions about each gender, most start with the idea of gender typingRead MoreGender Discrimination At The Workplace962 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Gender Discrimination in the Workplace Santisha Fleming Human Resource Management Dr.Juluis Demps Ã¢â¬âManagement 360 Jacksonville University April, 1, 2015Ã¢â¬Æ' American women can vote, hold office, and they can work in a public work environment. They are considered have an equal opportunity when compared to men. What is the true definition of equal employment opportunity? Does this mean that women and men are offered the same opportunities in the workplace? As well treated equally in regardsRead MoreSummary Of Looking For Alibrandi By Goria Steinem1077 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"A gender-equal society would be one where the word Ã¢â¬Å"genderÃ¢â¬ does not exist: where everyone can be themselves. Ã¢â¬Å"said by Goria Steinem. I disagree with SteinemÃ¢â¬â¢s statement in relation to gender equality in contemporary Australia. In this essay, three arguments would be addressed, which directly referred to Melina MarchettaÃ¢â¬â¢s 1992 novel, Looking for Alibrandi that enacted a story of a teenage girl who had to face difficulties in the society and fight with the original Australians as she was an illegitimateRead MoreGender Discrimina tion And Equal Employment Essay1465 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGender Discrimination and Equal Employment Introduction Discrimination has existed since the beginning of time. Often time people discriminate upon individuals unintentionally, because of certain stereotypes that have associated with race, gender, and religion. The First Amendment of the United States gives each individual the freedom of not only religion, but expression, and speech. Yet, despite the many historic and recent efforts gender discrimination and inequality is still a major issue inRead MoreGender Roles And Gender Responsibilities1116 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGender roles and gender division in biological perspectives were an issue in global societies. Even in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s societies depending on the geographical areas around the world, gender roles are socially divided. However other geographic countries completely equal, such as Iceland. Laws such as a third gender option at birth, then decision followed by the child. The third gender option would be judged negatively in some other geographic parts of our globally social socie ties. What kind of impact doRead MoreWhen People Think Of Discrimination, They Tend To Think1254 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespeople think of discrimination, they tend to think back to older times of slavery, racism, and an underdeveloped country. Sadly, discrimination actual plays a large role in the workplace of today. Discrimination is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"treating a person or particular group of people differently, especially in a worse way from the way in which you treat other people, because of their skin color, sex, sexuality, etc.Ã¢â¬ according to the Cambridge Dictionary (Cambridge University Press 1). Discrimination comes in manyRead MoreGender, Sexual Orientation And Education1746 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesaround a number of issues that revolve around gender, religion, sexual orientation and education. These divides have created an un-opened minded society that judge people and groups based on the prejudices and stereotypes that treat them differently. In the aspect of identity disc rimination, American society plays a big role in keeping those that are different isolated from the rest of the world. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s society suffers huge from a spectrum that focuses power on discrimination. In this spectrum,
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Plagiarism Comprehension-Self Assessment Introduction: The conditions indicating plagiarism are complex and detailed. There are many different rules which enter into presenting ones research. And as Ive learned in undergoing both pretest and posttest, as well as through my review of the TUI Student Handbook, academic integrity doesnt just mean an honest representation of ones own work but it also means learning how to properly give credit to others for the work that theyve done. Self-Assessment: In an honest self-assessment, I recognize that I have has some degree of difficulty truly understanding the many different rules of plagiarism. The scores yielded by both of my tests and the answers provided throughout each of these tests suggests that I still have a great deal to learn about properly attributing citations, about how to identify my sources and how to avoid the pitfalls of accidental plagiarism. Pre/Posttest Scores: On my pretest, I scored four correct and six incorrect out of ten true or false items. The answers that I delivered incorrectly suggest that I entered the pretest with a number of assumptions about the entitlement to present other peoples ideas informally. In other words, I tend to have a lenient perspective about the rules that must accompany each citation, whether this refers to the use of quotation marks or the proper technical placement of source identifiers. I scored a four out of ten correct on the posttest. My answers were, in fact,Show MoreRelatedWhy Is Literacy Is A Secondary Goal?1388 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesclassrooms found that these classrooms consistently featured; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬Å"Extensive and diverseÃ¢â¬ reading and writing with kids fully engaged in reading and writing text during most of the time devoted to reading and writing instruction Ã¢â¬ ¢ A focus on teaching for self-regulation and decision-making to help students operate as independently as possible Ã¢â¬ ¢ Students who were totally engrossed in the work of reading and writing to learn Ã¢â¬ ¢ Many books to read at studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ instructional and independent reading levels, bothRead MoreThe Importance Of Reading Comprehension Strategies And Effectiveness Of Professional Development1583 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages(for grammar and plagiarism) Review of Literature This paper focuses on two major concerns: the effectiveness of reading comprehension strategies and the effectiveness of professional development. There has been a great amount of study and writing on both topics. In addition to these subtopics, the topic of reading inventories will also be explored with regards to the Scholastic Reading Inventory and the use of these tools in evaluating comprehension in reading. Reading comprehension strategies. ThroughoutRead MoreWriting and Main Idea Sentence863 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesincluding extensive work in reading comprehension and retention. Students will practice identifying topics, determining the main idea of a text, recognizing the supporting details of a paragraph, recognizing authorsÃ¢â¬â¢ writing patterns, and understanding new vocabulary through context clues. Emphasis is given to the rhetorical structures of the argumentative essay. | Course outcomes | Learning Outcome | Domain: cognitive, affective, Psychomotor (skills) | Assessment technique | 1. Determine andRead Moredesign and implement a Pay-for-Performance Incentive Reward Program for all employees, including senior management1233 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesincludes all assignments, exams, term papers, and other projects required by the faculty mentor. The known submission of another personÃ¢â¬â¢s work represented as that of the LearnerÃ¢â¬â¢s without properly citing the source of the work will be considered plagiarism and will result in an unsatisfactory grade for the work submitted or for the entire course, and may result in academic dismissal. HRM5000-8 Donny Bagwell Human Resources Management Assignment 3 New Employee Training Programs Read Moremarketing strategy2032 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ Module Code: MK0388 Module Title: Marketing Management and Strategy Distributed on: Week 6 Hand in Date: TBC Instructions on Assessment: The assessment has two parts: Group work (presentation and peer evaluation) contributes 25% of the overall mark The individual assignment contributes 75% of the overall mark Seminar activities (25%) Students will work in small groups within their seminar and make a number of presentations on their chosen organisation. Further informationRead MoreContinuing Academic Success Essay1502 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswill persevere as long as I keep my eyes on the price and stay motivated. There are many components to ensure success in my educational and career endeavors; such as, personal responsibility, use of the resources provided by the University, and have self-awareness. IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure to succeed as long as I apply myself and take advantage of the resources that are designed to assist in my academic life, subsequently into my professional life. It takes personal responsibility to succeed in any aspect of yourRead MoreMK389 Assignment 2015 Upd Essay2652 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Ã¢â¬Ë.~ Module Code: MK0389 Module Title: Global Marketing and Communication Distributed on: Week 1 Hand in Date: TBC Instructions on Assessment: The assessment is in two parts: Group seminar presentations contribute to 30% of the overall mark The individual assignment contributes to 70% of the overall mark Seminar activities (30%) Students will work in small groups within their seminar and make two assessed presentations on their chosen global brand. Further information on the seminar activitiesRead MorePros and Cons of Online High School Classes1736 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesof Online High School Classes While online classes are a part of many colleges, there is intense debate over whether they should be incorporated into high school education. The advocates of online education key in on the convenience, flexibility, self direction, cost savings, safety, creativity, pacing aspect and access to resources. Those opposed to online classes feel that online education is driven solely by budget cuts and the result is a cheaper education that has less guidance, lacks theRead MoreReflection On Self Assessment Reflection Paper961 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSelf-Assessment Reflection Paper I have used the feedback to deepen my learning and improved the learning product I submitted by listing and understanding what my instructor have given me through our discussion about the homework assignments. I have taken that information constructively to make sure that the paper I will be submitting is concise and sound conveying the information properly in the APA format making the submitting assignment free from grammatical errors to best of my ability. ForRead MoreResearch must be conducted in accordance with ethical principles. In this section, I will discuss2600 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesNational Academies Plagiarism First, I would like to address the issue of plagiarism. The Random House Dictionary of the English Language defines plagiarism as Ã¢â¬Å"the appropriation or imitation of the language, ideas and thoughts of another author and representation of them as ones original work.Ã¢â¬ I firmly believe that plagiarism is a serious break of research ethics. Plagiarism means that the individual does not respect the intellectual rights of the original author. Plagiarism violates the literary
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
The term Soap Opera was coined because of the advertisements of soap being broadcasted at regular intervals during the screening of popular drama series on television. Such was the power of advertising. Pop culture was influence to a large extent by the advertising campaigns started by different companies. Advertising verily was the backbone of marketing communications in the innocent times of the asss and asss where you could easily reach large audiences, both locally and nationally.With the invention of the television, a new medium was created for further proliferation of promotional messages and it created an avenue for a lot Of creativity and competition. As the communication media grew, so did the modes of advertising. Television, Radio, Billboards, and a host of other media eave beaming us enticing messages of myriad offerings and manufacturers are climbing over each other to get a piece of the sale pie. Things continue to be dynamic and changes in times and social culture and technology kept being a constant force in shaping the marketing strategy of any firm. And as we stand here, we have seen a shift in consumer preferences and needs. The same consumers from 1 0 years ago have developed a different set of needs, satisfying which is the main objective of the commercial world. Not to forget of course the new generation of consumers who drive the most radical of hanged. The world is increasingly becoming more and more individual oriented and every consumer wants to be treated as the only one.Companies now need to address the need of making the consumer feel like the products offered are made specially for him and an age of customization has been ushered in. In such a scenario, mass media advertising, targeted at numbers might not be the most successful option always. And of course with the advent of superior technologies and the dominance of Internet and the online life becoming more and more tangible, traditional advertising does take a blow in the head. A consumer is now termed as multi screen user, spending a majority of his waking hours in front of either computer, smart phone or TV screens whether for work or leisure. It is clear that due to growing individualistic culture and superior technologies, traditional advertising, which needs to engage the attention of a jaded population, is fast losing grip. Marketing is all about reaching the people wherever they are and creating awareness about a particular product and promoting a sale.However with the consumer presence shifting, the mode of marketing needs to be shifted and modified as well. TV advertising has long been given the major part of marketing budgets but with the economic slowdown worldwide and companies slashing their budgets and getting more discerning, ROI (return on investment) has become the phrase of the day. With consumers being bombarded with too many messages on W, the consumers have become choosier and can decide not to watch a particular message.As such the ROI would not be as desired by the companies, and so, the re-think in strategy starts. Annapolis (2001 ) points out a reason for the diminishing preference for TV advertising. He claims that advertisers are shifting communication budgets way from advertising supported media to other marketing venues such as direct response mail or event sponsoring, as a result of the declining quality of the audience measurement induced by the enlarged inter- and intra-media choice and the declining willingness of respondents to participate in audience panels.In general, the trend of withdrawing advertising budgets from traditional advertising is not new (Kim, Han, and Schultz 2004). The customization of products has changed marketing from mass marketing to a one on one approach, where direct personalized marketing has become more ND more important (Karaoke, Carson, and Kayak 1997). Besides the growing attention for personalized communication at the expense of mass marketing, TV advertising has other problems; namely increasing ad clutter that makes the effectiveness Of TV commercials doubtful (Lowery, Shrill_Jam, and McCarty forthcoming).Other traditional advertising such as Radio, Billboard and other modes have also commanded a portion of the marketing budgets. However these modes are marginal in comparison to television, Direct marketing, sponsorships, promotions and the newer online marketing. In Figure 1 . , we see the global marketing budgets by medium from Jan to Gag 2012. It is clear from the above that there is a marked decline in the traditional media of TV, press, radio, and outdoor displays. And a growing increase in digital/ online and mobile promotions are gaining more popularity over the world.There are plenty of alternatives to straightforward advertising, including a myriad of marketing and communications services, some of which are called below-the-line advertising. They range from public relations to direct mail, consumer promotions (such as coupons), in-store displays, business-to- equines promotions (like paying a retailer for shelf-space), telemarketing exhibitions, sponsoring events, product placements and more. (The Economist, 2004) Now two diametrically opposite disciplines of marketing channels emerge. Above the Line and Below the line.Above the line channels could be described as Measured Media TV/Radio/Print Advertising, Outdoor Advertising, Yellow Pages and Below the line as Direct mail, direct response broadcast, direct response print, event, interactive or promotional marketing. Direct marketing is being adopted by various companies to feed the nonusers need of personalized offerings. The Macmillan, maker of the no. 4 single malt Scotch whisky brand worldwide adopted it very successfully. They had a practice of sending calendars called mainlanders to their valued customers every year.But then they employed a direct marketing strategy of sending regular mailers to their database of regular customers and were followed by a marked increase in sales. (Direct marketing news, March 2003 And then there is the Internet, where a modern consumer no matter what his business or pursuit, spends most of his useful time. The internet has brought number of different ways to reach out to the population, in addition to straightforward promotional messages. Theres lots of ways to skin a cat today, says Scott Godson, founder of Strawberrys, an agency based in Amsterdam that specializes in international campaigns.While his firm still uses traditional media, such as TV and print, it is often in conjunction with other techniques, such as viral marketing. This means trying to spread the message by word of mouth-?still considered the most-powerful form of advertising. Sometimes that involves using the Internet for e-mail messages intonating jokes, film clips and games, which recipients are encouraged to pass along to friends. (The Economist, 2004). Fig. 1. 2 It is clear from the above data that new media are taking over marketing communications over the traditional advertising that was the most successful since the asss.Asia however is adopting the changes fairly slowly and steadily. The cultural differences between Asia and the rest of the world cannot be ignored. They are bought by tradition and although they are one of the most proficient developers of new technology and are one of the biggest consumers of the exultant technology, they are still not very eager adopters of the new age marketing media. Many Asian marketers and agencies are in digital denial over the effectiveness of earned media generated by social networks and blobs, a study has suggested. (XML Asia, May 2011).Traditional media advertising still holds an important place in the marketing budgets of the companies working in Asia due to the fact that culturally, Asians tend to hold on to some old practices and TV, Radio and even billboards are very much a part of their lives. Fig 1. 3 Allocation of marketing budgets 2011 6% Advertising Events public Relations Market Research Other Areas 201 1 Fig 1. 4 Allocation of Advertising budgets 2011 Traditional media (Print, T. V, Radio, Out of home) Non-Traditional media (Digital, Online, Email, Mobile, Social media, etc. However this doesnt mean that Asian homegrown companies do not employ any radical marketing change tactics to rejuvenate the market, compete and boost sales. An example of an Asian company which consistently re- invents itself and employs aggressive marketing tactics against its competitors is the Korean technology company, Samsung. It started off as a lesser-known manufacturer of black and white televisions, Vics and, microwaves, selling its products to original equipment manufacturers (Memos), which sold them under their own brand name.They evolved from there to becoming one of the most desired brands as classified by Businesslike. Samsung has been known to have made some major radical changes in their marketing strategies. They sat reed in 2002 with the advertising campaign, Digital- Everyones invited! This gave them a recognition and growing acceptance in the consumer market, to which they were relatively new. After the successful launch of its Digital campaign, they took their branding activities to the next level by launching a co marketing campaign with Warner Brothers blockbuster movie, The Matrix reloaded.The Samsung were featu red in the movie that led to them marketing limited editions of Samsung phones in select markets that gave the brand a further edge. In addition to branding activities, Samsung has been consistently sponsoring various sports events including the Olympics, over a number of years. In recent times realizing the traditional advertising and branding activities deed some more leverage to stand up to competition from massive giants like Apple, they took a very radical step.In April this year, Samsung hired a marketing agency in Australia to send groups of people to protest outside Apple stores, over various locations in Australia, asking them to Wake up! This campaign raised many eyebrows and got wide coverage from television and news agencies. This is an example of the extent to which companies will get imaginative in their marketing stunts in the competitive consumer world of the present. Going forward into aggressive times, peoples attention spans are getting hurter and shorter with so much new technology and so many things on their mind.In conclusion, the way the world is going, traditional advertising will not be dead- it definitely wont be. There will always be a need for traditional advertising; people still like to curl up with a good magazine, or watch TV with their families. They might move on to digital version, but surely not move away altogether. There is going to be a lot of integration between traditional and new media, and lot of radical ideas, like the one by Samsung discussed above. Its really hard to predict the future.
Friday, April 10, 2020
Battle of the North Cape - World War II - Scharnhorst Battle of the North Cape - Conflict Date: The Battle of the North Cape was fought December 26, 1943, during World War II (1939-1945). Fleets Commanders Allies Admiral Sir Bruce FraserVice Admiral Robert Burnett1 battleship, 1 heavy cruiser, 3 light cruisers, 8 destroyers Germany Rear Admiral Erich Bey1 battlecruiser Battle of the North Cape - Background: In the fall of 1943, with the Battle of the Atlantic going poorly, Grand Admiral Karl Doenitz sought permission from Adolf Hitler to allow surface units of the Kriegsmarine to begin attacking Allied convoys in the Arctic. As the battleship Tirpitz had been badly damaged by British X-Craft midget submarines in September, Doenitz was left with the battlecruiser Scharnhorst and the heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen as his only large, operational surface units. Approved by Hitler, Doenitz ordered planning for Operation Ostfront to commence. This called for a sortie by Scharnhorst against Allied convoys moving between northern Scotland and Murmansk under the direction of Rear Admiral Erich Bey. On December 22, Luftwaffe patrols sited Murmansk-bound convoy JW 55B and began tracking its progress. Aware of Scharnhorsts presence in Norway, the commander of the British Home Fleet, Admiral Sir Bruce Fraser, began making plans to eliminate the German warship. Seeking battle around Christmas 1943, he planned to lure Scharnhorst from its base at Altafjord using JW 55B and Britain-bound RA 55A as bait. Once at sea, Fraser hoped to attack Scharnhorst with Vice Admiral Robert Burnetts Force 1, which had aided in escorting the earlier JW 55A, and his own Force 2. Burnetts command consisted of his flagship, the light cruiser HMS Belfast, as well as the heavy cruiser HMS Norfolk and light cruiser HMS Sheffield. Frasers Force 2 was built around the battleship HMS Duke of York, the light cruiser HMS Jamaica, and the destroyers HMS Scorpion, HMS Savage, HMS Saumarez, and HNoMS Stord. Battle of the North Cape - Scharnhorst Sorties: Learning that JW 55B had been spotted by German aircraft, both British squadrons left their respective anchorages on December 23. Closing on the convoy, Fraser held his ships back as he did not wish to deter a German sortie. Utilizing the Luftwaffe reports, Bey departed Altafjord on December 25 with Scharnhorst and the destroyers Z-29, Z-30, Z-33, Z-34, and Z-38. That same day, Fraser directed RA 55A to turn north to avoid the coming battle and ordered the destroyers HMS Matchless, HMS Musketeer, HMS Opportune, and HMS Virago to detach and join his force. Battling poor weather which hampered Luftwaffe operations, Bey searched for the convoys early on December 26. Believing he missed them, he detached his destroyers at 7:55 AM and ordered them to probe south. Battle of the North Cape - Force 1 Finds Scharnhorst: Approaching from the northeast, Burnetts Force 1 picked up Scharnhorst on radar at 8:30 AM. Closing in the increasingly snowy weather, Belfast opened fire at a range of around 12,000 yards. Joining the fray, Norfolk and Sheffield also began targeting Scharnhorst. Returning fire, Beys ship failed to score any hits on the British cruisers, but sustained two, one of which destroyed Scharnhorsts radar. Effectively blind, the German ship was forced to target the muzzle flashes of the British guns. Believing he was engaging a British battleship, Bey turned south in an effort to break off the action. Escaping Burnetts cruisers, the German ship turned northeast and attempted to loop around to strike at the convoy. Hampered by degrading sea conditions, Burnett shifted Force 1 to a position to screen JW 55B. Somewhat concerned that he had lost Scharnhorst, Burnett reacquired the battlecruiser on radar at 12:10 PM. Exchanging fire, Scharnhorst succeeded in hitting Norfolk, destroying its radar and putting a turret out of action. Around 12:50 PM, Bey turned south and decided to return to port. Pursuing Scharnhorst, Burnetts force was soon reduced to just Belfast as the other two cruisers began suffering mechanical issues. Relaying Scharnhorsts position to Frasers Force 2, Burnett maintained contact with the enemy. At 4:17 PM, Duke of York picked up Scharnhorst on radar. Bearing down on the battlecruiser, Fraser pushed his destroyers forward for a torpedo attack. Maneuvering into position to deliver a full broadside, Fraser ordered Belfast to fire starshells over Scharnhorst at 4:47 PM. Battle of the North Cape - Death of Scharnhorst: With its radar out, Scharnhorst was caught by surprise as the British attack developed. Using radar-directed fire, Duke of York scored hits on the German ship with its first salvo. As the fighting continued, Scharnhorsts forward turret was put out of action and Bey turned north. This quickly brought him under fire from Belfast and Norfolk. Changing course to the east, Bey sought to escape the British trap. Hitting Duke of York twice, Scharnhorst was able to damage its radar. Despite this success, the British battleship struck the battlecruiser with a shell which destroyed one of its boiler rooms. Quickly slowing to ten knots, Scharnhorsts damage control parties worked to repair the damage. This was partially successful and soon the ship was moving at twenty-two knots. Though an improvement, this reduced speed allowed Frasers destroyers to close. Maneuvering to attack, Savage and Saumarez approached Scharnhorst from port while Scorpion and Stord neared from starboard. Turning to starboard to engage Savage and Saumarez, Scharnhorst quickly took a torpedo hit from one of the other two destroyers. This was followed by three hits on its port side. Badly damaged, Scharnhorst slowed allowing Duke of York to close. Supported by Belfast and Jamaica, Duke of York began pummeling the German battlecruiser. With the battleships shells striking, both light cruisers added torpedoes to the barrage. Listing severely and with the bow partially submerged, Scharnhorst continued to limp along at about three knots. With the ship critically damaged, the order was given to abandon ship around 7:30 PM. Charging forward, the destroyer detachment from RA 55A fired nineteen torpedoes at the stricken Scharnhorst. Several of these struck home and soon the battlecruiser was convulsed by a series of explosions. Following a massive explosion at 7:45 PM, Scharnhorst slipped beneath the waves. In the wake of the sinking, Matchless and Scorpion began picking up survivors before Fraser ordered his forces to proceed to Murmansk. Battle of the North Cape - Aftermath: In the fighting off the North Cape, the Kriegsmarine suffered the loss of Scharnhorst and 1,932 of its crew. Due to the threat of U-boats, British ships were only able to rescue 36 German sailors from the frigid water. British losses totaled 11 killed and 11 wounded. The Battle of the North Cape marked the last surface engagement between British and German capital ships during World War II. With Tirpitz damaged, the loss of Scharnhorst effectively eliminated surface threats to the Allies Arctic convoys. The engagement also demonstrated the importance of radar-directed fire control in modern naval battles. Selected Sources Operation Ostfront: ScharnhorstImperial War Museum: Battle of the North Cape
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
Reaction to Ethan Frome essays The movie begins in winter and Reverend Smith enters the town to serve the community of Starkfield. Eager to do gods work, this very ambitious preacher pities an old man and wishes to help him. The people of the town seem to become rigged and tightlipped whenever Reverend Smith ever brings him up. Mr. Smiths keeper Mrs. Crane explains to him that he has sinned and begins to tell him the story of Ethan Fromes misfortune. Its at this point in the movie when there is a flashback sequence that lasts for most of the remainder of the film. We find out that the old cripple was not always crippled. It seems curious to how he got this way. We also meet a new character, which is a distant cousin of Ethans. Zeena was sent to live with Ethan to help take care of his mother until the day of her death during the winter. Too cold to travel home, Zeena stays with Ethan. They eventually fall in love and get married. As time progresses, Zeenas health declines and she sends for a relative to come live with them until her health improves. Mattie Silver arrives to take care of her cousin and eventually caches the eye of Ethan. A strong sexual tension builds between the two and they eventually fall for one another. While attempting to maintain a discreet relationship, the towns people become displaced from Ethan and they become aware that the interaction between Ethan and Mattie is not normal. As Zeena returns from an out of town doctors visit for her illness, she is easily enraged and seems to be intuitive to the intermingling between Ethan and Mattie. Zeena sends for another family member to replace Mattie and it threatens the relationship that Ethan and Mattie have built. As Ethan is taking Mattie to the train station to leave the town, they decide to go sledding where on top of a hill they express their passion for each other. After several runs, Ethan places Mattie in the steering position and sh ...
Saturday, February 22, 2020
To what extent does social security encourage benefit dependency OR discuss the proposition that work is the best form of welfare - Essay Example First, social security is a form of relief from poverty. In the event where a person losses his or her job, the state shall come to its rescue by providing replacement income. The second reason why a government would provide social security is that it is a means of social protection. Not only will the social security system provides protection against poverty, it gives a person some peace of mind that he or she will not suffer from deprivation in the event where he or she gets sick or losses his or here job. The third reason why social security is provided is that it is a means of redistributing income back to the people. People who have less or have inadequate income can benefit from this system. The very concept of social security stems from the idea of mutual cooperation between the government and its citizens. As part of the commitment of the government to protect its people, the social security system in but a transitory thing where people gets assistance while they get back into their feet after they fall into Ã¢â¬Å"bad luckÃ¢â¬ . Although the concept of social security is a noble idea that is supposed to help people instead of making them dependent on the system, there instances in the past as well as in our present society that would lead us to believe otherwise. Government records on social security would tell us that there are a growing number of people in the United Kingdom who are becoming government dependents. To prove this point, let us look into the activities in the areas of employment and social security from 1997 to January 2006. Between 1997 and 2001, the unemployment rate of the country fell from 7.2% to 4.9%.1 However, in the next five years that followed this progress, there is no significant change or improvement in the unemployment rate of the country. Where there is no increase or decrease in statistics, we can safely conclude that there have no significant improvements during these years in terms of employment. Considering